Myasthenia Gravis

Introduction

Myasthenia Gravis is a autoimmune disorder which is caused due to the development of antibodies which block the receptors in the nervous and muscle junction and cause fatigue in the muscles. Mostly the muscles of eye, face and swallowing are affected. If we look at the neuromuscular junction, the release of Acetylcholine from the neurons binds with the receptor in the muscle junction and the function is carried out. In myasthenia gravis the receptors are blocked thus the Acetylcholine cannot bind with receptors and the muscle function becomes weak.

Symptoms

Eye

Due to the weakness of muscle of eyes there might we weakness in eye and double vision. Eyes cannot be opened properly.

Eating

The food cannot be swallowed properly or the food is left in mouth.

Head and neck

Due to weakness of the muscle of facial expressions and muscles of mastication, there may be facial expressions manifesting as inability to hold the mouth closed (hanging jaw)

Treatment

It mainly includes the drugs which are Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors like neostigmine, Azathioprine. These drugs help to increase the Acetylcholine enzyme in the junction and decrease the break down of this enzyme helping to return to normal stateof the body.

Anxiety 

Anxiety is a feeling of worry, nervousness, or unease about something with an uncertain outcome. It is the subjectively unpleasant feelings of dread over anticipated events. Anxiety is not as same as fear. David Barlow defines anxiety as “a future-oriented mood state in which one is not ready or prepared to attempt to cope with upcoming negative events.” Fear is the response to a real immediate threat. Whereas Anxiety is a feeling of uneasiness and worry, usually generalized and unfocused as an overreaction to a situation that is only subjectively seen as menacing. Fear is defined as short lived, present focused, geared towards a specific threat, and facilitating escape from threat; anxiety, on the other hand, is defined as long acting, future focused, broadly focused towards a diffuse threat, and promoting excessive caution while approaching a potential threat and interferes with constructive coping.

Symptoms

  • Neurological

Headache

abnormal sensation such as tingling, tickling, pricking, numbness or burning of a person’s skin with no apparent physical cause. 
Digestive

Nausea

  • Diarrhea

Indigestion 

Dry mouth

  • Respiratory 

Shortness of breath
Treatment

Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is the most widely-used therapy for anxiety disorders. Research has shown it to be effective in the treatment of panic disorder, phobias, social anxiety disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder, among many other conditions.

Anxiety

Anxiety is a feeling of worry, nervousness, or unease about something with an uncertain outcome. It is the subjectively unpleasant feelings of dread over anticipated events. Anxiety is not as same as fear. David Barlow defines anxiety as “a future-oriented mood state in which one is not ready or prepared to attempt to cope with upcoming negative events.” Fear is the response to a real immediate threat. Whereas Anxiety is a feeling of uneasiness and worry, usually generalized and unfocused as an overreaction to a situation that is only subjectively seen as menacing. Fear is defined as short lived, present focused, geared towards a specific threat, and facilitating escape from threat; anxiety, on the other hand, is defined as long acting, future focused, broadly focused towards a diffuse threat, and promoting excessive caution while approaching a potential threat and interferes with constructive coping.

Symptoms

Neurological

  • Headache
  • abnormal sensation such as tingling, tickling, pricking, numbness or burning of a person’s skin with no apparent physical cause.

 

Digestive

  • Nausea
  • Diarrhea
  • Indigestion
  • Dry mouth

Respiratory

  • Shortness of breath

 

Treatment

Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is the most widely-used therapy for anxiety disorders. Research has shown it to be effective in the treatment of panic disorder, phobias, social anxiety disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder, among many other conditions.

Myocardial infarction (MI)

Myocardial infraction, commonly know as heart attack, is caused when blood flow stops to a part of the heart causing damage to the heart muscle. It is a non-communicable disease. The most common symptom is chest pain or discomfort which may travel into the shoulder, arm, back, neck. Often it is in the center or left side of the chest and lasts for more than a few minutes.

Sign and symptoms

The signs of heart attack are usually gradual starting from chest pain. Chest pain is due to ischemia which means lack of blood and oxygen supply. The pain starts from the left side of body and radiates to lower jaw, neck, right arm, back, and upper abdomen, where it may feel like heartburn. Shortness of breathe occurs due to failure of left ventricle. Excessive sweating, weakness, light-headedness, nausea, vomiting may also occur during myocardial infraction.

Causes

Their are many causes of myocardial infraction. Smoking, obesity, lack of exercise, stress are some of the causes of it. Some diseases like diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, high low density lipoprotein or low high density lipoprotein also cause heart attack.

Prevention

Myocardial infraction can be prevented by change in lifestyle changes and medical treatment.

Lifestyle changes

Intake of wholegrain starch reducing sugar intake is highly recommended. Fruits must be taken daily. Consuming 4–5 portions of unsalted nuts, seeds, or legumes per week.

Medication

Aspirin can be used for primary prevention of heart attack. Cholesterol lowering drug can be used by the people who have high risk of cardiovascular diseases

Diabetes Mellitus (DM)

Overview

Diabetes mellitus commonly called diabetes is a non communicable disease. When a hormone, produced by pancreas called insulin, is either not produced enough or the body doesn’t react to it properly causes diabetes. Insulin helps to control the blood sugar level and store the extra glucose for future use. No cure has been developed till now so the people with diabetes need to manage their disease to stay healthy. There are three types of diabetes.

1. Type 1 diabetes

It is due to the pancreas not able to produce enough insulin for the body. It is normally caused in children

2. Type 2 diabetes

It is due to the development of resistance of insulin in the body. It is caused due to overweight and no regular exercise. It is normally called in adults.

3. Gestational diabetes

In this type pregnant women with no history diabetes develop high blood sugar level.

Sign and symptoms

The sign and symptoms of diabetes are as follows:-
Weight loss
Excess urination
Excess thirst
Excess hunger
Other symptoms include:-
Blurry vision
Headache
Fatigue
Slow healing of cuts
Itchy skin

Treatment and prevention

Their are no treatment of diabetes but we can prevent it. We can prevent diabetes by keeping an active life. If you have a diabetes history in the family then it is better to keep a healthy lifestyle. Exercise regularly. If you already have been diagnosed with diabetes then taking diabetes medicine must be taken regularly. Insulin doses as recommended by doctor must be taken.

Meditation

As exercise is to body, meditation is to the mind. Meditation is a practice where a person trains their mind to realize some benefits or for the mind to simply acknowledge its content without becoming identified with that content. It is a practice in which different techniques are designed to promote relaxation and build internal energy.

Meditation helps to relax the body which helps to concentrate and also develop patience in a person. It helps to develop a sense of indestructible sense of well being in the practitioner while engaging in other activities of life. Meditation is used to clear the mind and ease many health concerns, such as high blood pressure, depression, and anxiety. It may be done sitting, or in an active way.

There are many emotional, mental, physical benefits of meditating. By meditating we connect to ourselves which helps us realize what we truly want and how can we get their. It also helps to develop patience, increases focus and become more happy in life.

Meditation can be done in a peaceful place where their is less noise and and environment is calm. The calm environment helps the brain to relax and decrease distraction so we can focus more. It can also be done with some calm, low music. It is usually done in the morning with empty stomach. This helps to relax our internal organ and helps to concentrate. We also need fresh air which helps to relax the mind so the perfect time to meditate is in the morning.

Their are many methods for meditation. Few have been described below:-

1. Focused attention
In this process we focus our mind on a particular thing with our eyes opened. The smaller the target the better it helps to meditate. But in the beginning some regular object must be considered. This helps to develop concentration and focus with time. In this process we can sit down with crossed legs or lay down. After that we keep the object in front of us and take a deep breathe and then concentrate on the object avoiding all the distractions. Instead of keeping an object we can also pronounce some mantras and focus on it.

2. Open monitoring meditation
In this process instead of keeping the eyes open and focusing of a object we close our eyes and focus on some thoughts or smell, sounds without any judgement or perception. In this process we sit in the same way just closing our eyes. We start by a deep breathe and the focus on the thought.

3. Effortless presence
In this process we do not concentrate on a particular thought. Instead we just leave the thought and remain quiet, empty, self sufficient. This is the pure form of meditation which must be practiced for pure presence. It is as same as the open monitoring meditation just that no thought is to be focused in this process.

Meditation might seem hard in the beginning but as we practice we start finding it easy and also satisfying to ourselves.

7 Minutes Workout

Fitness is one of the things that most people want but most of them do not have time to work out or do not know the proper method. Most of them think that they have to exercise an hour to stay fit. By just thinking about working out for that long discourages us from getting out of our bed. But now a proper and easy exercise pattern has been developed which takes about 7 minutes to keep ourselves fit. The exercise includes 12 workouts which is to be practiced for 30 seconds and rest for 10 seconds. It has been very effective to stay fit and healthy. The workouts are very easy to perform and doesn’t take time. The sequence of the exercises are given below:-

1. Jumping Jacks
This is very simple exercise and is for warming up the body. We stand straight with our hands by our side and legs close together. Then we jump and spread our legs and hands at the same time. After that we jump again and return to normal position.

2.Wall Sit
In this exercise we sit like a chair with the support of the wall. The legs are close together and at the knees and at the hips 90 degree is formed. The back is supported by the wall. This exercise helps to strengthen quadriceps muscles.

3. Push ups
In this exercise we lie down facing the ground and hands resting above our shoulders. When we begin we press down and come to a position where our elbows are straight and our legs are making certain angle with the ground. Then we release our selfs and come back to original position and then it is repeated. This exercises our whole middle part of the body

4. Crunches
In this exercise we lie down on the ground facing upward and knees folded and hands behind our head. As we start we pull ourselves towards our knees as far as possible and then return to our original position. This exercise helps to reduce stomach fat and also helps to develop abs.

5. Step up
For this we require a place where there is a height like staircase. We first stand at the bottom. As we start we go up the height or the stair and then we go back. We have to alternate our feet.

6. Plank
In this exercise we have to lie down on our stomach and then with the help of our elbows we lift ourselves up and we also have our toes straight. Our body must also be straight.

7. Squats
In this we first stand straight after that we go down bending our knees and looking straight then we get back to our original position

8. Chair Dips
For this we would require a chair. We first sit on the chair then we put our hands on the edge of the chair and move forward from the chair in such a way that we are resting our body only with hands and no part of body except hands are touching the chair. Then we go down and go back up.

9. Lunges
In this exercise we stand straight then we move forward with our right leg keeping the left leg in original position and touching our left knee to the ground. Then we get back up and repeat it with another leg.

10. Running in place
This is a very simple but effective exercise. In this the whole body is exercised. We just run in the place where we are standing.

11. Push up and rotation
In this exercise we first do a push up then we move our right hand upwards making 180• with our left hand then we come back to our original position and repeat the exercise with left hand.

12. Side plank
In this exercise we rest our whole body on our right elbow and hands spreading out our left hands in air.

This is the whole work out. It is really simple to perform. If someone needs more intense workout then they can perform these same exercises 2-3 times.

Welcome

Hello

I am Godsome Reynolds and I have started writing today. I am a medical student. I will be writing about different facts about human body, prevention and cure for different diseases and about how to stay fit. The page name DitU is my dream. In my future I want to make a hospital after that name. I really hope for your support.
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